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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2016  |  Volume : 3  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 22-32

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in children: An update on pathogenesis, clinical features and review of literature

1 Resident Fellow, Weill Cornell-New York Presbyterian
2 Attending Pediatric Pulmonologist, Weill Cornell-New York Presbyterian

Date of Submission13-Jun-2016
Date of Acceptance12-Jul-2016
Date of Web Publication21-Jul-2016

Correspondence Address:
Rizwana Popatia
505 East 70th Street HT 3, New York, NY 10021

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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.21304/2016.0303.00125

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Pulmonary alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disease whereby the alveolar sacs are filled with a lipoproteinaceous material. The accumulation of this material hinders gas exchange, resulting in a variety of presentations involving all age groups. Symptoms range in severity from mild cough and dyspnea in most patients, to respiratory distress and failure to thrive in infants and young children. Depending on the etiology, PAP cases are classified as being hereditary, secondary, or autoimmune. Despite the different mechanisms underlying these, a unifying pathophysiological concept for PAP exists. Diagnosis is often difficult, and takes time to establish, given the vague nature ofthe presenting symptoms ofthis disease. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) remains the preferred radiological diagnostic tool. Diagnosis is confirmed by lung biopsy and bronchoalveolar fluid lavage. Management encompasses whole lung lavage (WLL), exogenous GM-CSF therapy, supportive respiratory measures where necessary, and even lung transplant in some severe cases. Children affected with PAP remain a population with high mortality. Pediatric literature is scarce in comparison to PAP described in adults. This paper focuses on reviewing the pathophysiology in context to recent advances in molecular genetics, diagnosis, and management in children with this disease.

Keywords: pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, surfactant protein, lipoproteinaceous material, crazy paving, whole lung lavage

How to cite this article:
Hamed A, Rosenbaum D, Cheng E, Popatia R. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in children: An update on pathogenesis, clinical features and review of literature. J Pediatr Crit Care 2016;3:22-32

How to cite this URL:
Hamed A, Rosenbaum D, Cheng E, Popatia R. Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis in children: An update on pathogenesis, clinical features and review of literature. J Pediatr Crit Care [serial online] 2016 [cited 2022 Dec 8];3:22-32. Available from: http://www.jpcc.org.in/text.asp?2016/3/3/22/282624

  Introduction Top

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is an uncommon disorder characterized by inapt accumulation of lipoproteinaceous material in the alveoli, leading to impaired gas exchange and respiratory insufficiency. Being a rare disease, most of the evidence comes from case reports and small case series. However, the majority of PAP cases are autoimmune and are found in adults, making information regarding the other forms of PAP, especially in children, much more scarce in comparison.

S. Rosen first described this disease in 1958 as an unusual disease of the lung in which the alveoli were filled with PAS-positive protein rich material.[1] PAP is a heterogenous disease but has been primarily classified in to three categories - hereditary, secondary and autoimmune. Current global estimate is one case per two million.[2] The disease also features a worldwide distribution and occurs in all age groups - neonates,[3] children,[3],[4],[5],[6] and adults.[7] Autoimmune PAP remains the most common and comprises almost 90% of all cases of PAP.[8] There is a male preponderance of 2-3:1, but an equal sex distribution in non-smoker population. The estimated incidence is 0.5 million, and prevalence ranges from 6 to 7 per million.[8],[9],[10] Clinical presentations may range from dyspnea and cough to cyanosis and clubbing, with about a third of the patients being asymptomatic at diagnosis.[11] Secondary PAP is the next most common form of PAP and it accounts for approximately 8-9% of total PAP cases.[4] It usually occurs secondary to hematological malignancies,[12],[13],[14],[15],[16] infections,[17] rheumatological diseases,[12],[18],[19],[20] and toxic inhalation[8],[10],[21],[22]. The hereditary form is most commonly seen in children, and occurs as a result of mutations in surfactant protein (SFTPB, SFTPC, ABCA3),[23],[24],[25],[26],[27] GM-CSF receptor units[4]·[28],[29],[30] or lysurinic protein intolerance. With increasing evidence of a pediatric form of this disease, as seen in multiple case reports and recent advances in molecular genetics· our understanding of pediatric PAP has improved considerably. In this paper we review the pathophysiology in context to recent advances in molecular genetics and immunohistochemistry, clinical features and management of this disease.

  Pathophysiology, Molecular Genetics & Immunohistochemistry Top

1) Hereditary PAP

  Normal Surfactant Metabolism Top

Surfactant homeostasis is an extremely complex process involving alveolar type II cells and macrophages. Surfactant proteins are a lipoprotein complex secreted by type II alveolar cells. It plays an important role in reducing surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the gas exchange areas of the lung (hydrophobic surfactant proteins -B and C) and provides innate immunity (hydrophilic surfactant proteins - A and D).[31] Both the lipid and protein components of surfactant are stored in lamellar bodies, which are then secreted into the alveolar space by a process called exocytosis. Once secreted, surfactant undergoes a series of complex transformations in the alveoli by a pathway that is not well understood, into a lattice-like structure, called tubular myelin.[32] This structure serves as the precursor to the formation of a monolayer film, rich in dipalmitoylphosphatidyl choline, which ultimately helps in the reduction of alveolar surface tension and collapse of alveoli. Type II cells and alveolar macrophages play a vital role in the degradation and recycling of surfactant.[33] Studies have shown that surfactant proteins regulate the uptake and recycling of surfactant phospholipids by receptor-mediated endocytosis.[34]

A fine balance between its production and clearance sustains surfactant homeostasis. Alveolar macrophages play a primary role in clearance of surfactant proteins and lipids. GM-CSF (Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor) is a hematopoietic cytokine released by a variety of leukocytes, including macrophages, fibroblasts and lymphocytes in addition to serving as a modulator of white blood cell function.[35] The GM-CSF receptor is found on alveolar macrophages. It is composed of two main subunits; alpha (α) and beta (β), coded by Colony Stimulating Factor 2 Receptor Alpha subunit (CSF2RA) and Receptor Beta subunit (CSF2RB) respectively.[36] CSF2RB also functions as a receptor for IL-3 and IL-5.[37] One of the functions that are induced through its activation is the clearance of alveolar surfactant.[38],[39],[40],[41]

  Surfactant Dysfunction Top

As mentioned earlier, surfactant components function as cohesive particles, holding together the phospholipid-dominant surfactant material, which is referred to as ‘lateral stability.‘[42] Mutations in the genes coding for these surfactant proteins have been implicated in PAP.[43]

The SFTPB gene (chromosome 2) codes for surfactant protein B (SP-B). These mutations are usually autosomal recessive, but can also arise de novo as nonsense, missense, and frame-shift mutations.[44] Within pneumocytes, they result in the formation of disorganized vesicles due to an incompletely formed surfactant aggregate, instead of normally arranged lamellar bodies. Ultimately, when the content of these vesicles is released, they fail to form the thin film that would otherwise coat the alveolar surface.[45] Interestingly, investigations on SP-B deficient patients have also revealed incomplete SP-C function and deficiency.[46]

SFTPC (chromosome 8) mutations have been widely described to cause diffuse lung disease in children and adults.[23],[24],[47] After being translated into pro-SP-C further modifications are made to yield the final SP-C protein.[48] An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance was described for this mutation,[49] though de novo mutations have been widely reported. In addition to its shared function with the other surfactant proteins, SP-C exhibits an additional benefit whereby it maintains surfactant homeostasis by facilitating surfactant uptake by type-II pneumocytes. The observation of hypertrophied pneumocytes in murine biopsy samples lent evidence to this mechanism.[50] In addition, due to the dysfunctional structure of the pro-SP-C product of mutated SFTPC genes, this protein tends to aggregate within the alveolar cell, inducing cellular toxicity.[51]

Mutations of proteins involving trafficking and transport ofsome other surfactant components are also implicated. ABC (ATP-based cassette) transporters are membrane bound structures that hydrolyze ATP to shuttle different substances across plasma membranes. ABCA3 is a gene (chromosome 16) that codes for a specific transporter found on the surface of the lamellar bodies within type-II pneumocytes. Their dysfunction results in mislocalization of surfactant proteins and resultant PAP.[25],[52] Analysis of the structure and function of the ABCA3 mutated gene product revealed two mechanisms by which this occurs: (a) inappropriate intracellular trafficking, and/or (b) normal trafficking, but with decreased ATP hydrolysis activity of the transporter.[53] These mutations are inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern.[54] Family members that are heterozygotes for these mutations are asymptomatic, indicating sufficient function of the normal gene product.[55]

  GM-CSF Receptor Mutations (CSF2RA, CSF2RB) Top

Mutations in the CSF2RA gene (chromosome X) affect the α subunit, whereas those in the CSF2RB (chromosome 22) gene affect the β subunit.

Mutations of CSF2RA have been described in eight children ranging from 1.5-9 years and are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.[4] Some mutations may have incomplete penetrance, and were described in two asymptomatic children of the affected family in the same study.

CSF2RB mutations were first described in 1995 in mice that were transplanted with bone marrow cells containing a defective CSF2RB gene, which resulted in a hypocellular bone marrow and lung pathology consistent with PAP.[56] Mutations of CSF2RB have been reported in various case reports ranging from neonatal age to adults.[28],[29],[30]

The mechanism by which this receptor dysfunction causes PAP is not yet fully understood. It is hypothesized that activation of the GM-CSF receptor, via JAK-STAT signaling, triggers a cascade down multiple other activation pathways.[36] This signaling is believed to then promote the uptake of surfactant by alveolar macrophages. The final result of all GM-CSF mutations is therefore the inability of alveolar macrophages to efficiently clear excess surfactant, disrupting its homoeostasis, and leading to its abnormal accumulation.

2) Secondary PAP

Secondary PAP, as the name suggests, occurs secondary to hematological malignancies, immune deficiencies, rheumatological disorders, infections and toxic inhalation. Recently, GATA 2 mutations have been implicated in some hematological and infectious conditions associated with PAP.[57],[58]

  GATA2 Mutations Top

First discovered in the late 1980s in chicken globin genes, GATA2 (chromosome 3) is among a family of DNA transcription factors that feature zinc finger domains.[59] It plays a direct role in the differentiation and maturation of cells of the hematopoietic lineage.[60] Different types of mutations in this gene’s locus as well as its regulatory sequences have been identified.[57] These mutations arise spontaneously, and are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. Heterozygous individuals demonstrate haploinsufficiency, whereby the remaining functional gene cannot generate a normal phenotype on its own.[61] Given the gene’s early involvement in the hematopoietic process, a subsequent dysfunction down all the cell lines can manifest.

3) Autoimmune PAP

Autoimmune PAP is characterized by increased levels of circulating anti-GM-CSF antibodies. These are IgG antibodies that have increased affinity for binding GM-CSF, thus blocking its function.[62],[63],[64] GM-CSF serves as a stimulus for alveolar macrophages. Reduction of this cytokine in the blood causes dysfunction of alveolar macrophages, and thereby, reduced surfactant clearance and abnormal accumulation.[10],[65] It also modifies the neutrophils and lymphocytes, causing increased rates of opportunistic infections associated with this type of PAP.[66]

  Diagnosis Top

Clinical Features

1) Hereditary PAP

  Surfactant Protein Dysfunction Top

Mutations of SFTPB usually present in the neonatal period with signs and symptoms of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). However, they are found to be non-responsive to interventions of exogenous surfactant and steroids.[48] This disease therefore carries the burden of high mortality and patients usually do not survive beyond the neonatal period.[67] Some novel mutations have been described with increased survival to early childhood, found to be due to a decrease in functional SP-B protein, rather than complete deficiency.[68]

SFTPC mutations on the other hand are less lethal, and generally do not present early on in life.[69] Interestingly however, these mutations in isolation are less likely to result in PAP. Rather, they tend to cause a picture consistent with interstitial lung diseases (ILD), including pulmonary fibrosis and nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis.[43],[51],[70] These patients would preset with dyspnea, cough and failure to thrive. A presentation with a mixed picture of both PAP and ILD is also possible, as in the case of an 8-month- old boy with a homozygous SFTPC mutation who presented with cough and cyanosis.[71] The SFTPC product and precursor protein pro-SP-C, has been found to aggregate and cause clinical PAP in patients. ABCA3 mutations also present in the neonatal period, with a picture much like RDS. They affect the structural development of the fetal lungs, and are almost always fatal.[43] Of note, some cases of homozygous ABCA3 mutations are not lethal, as reported in adolescents and young adults, but with manifestations of interstitial pneumonitis.[72]

  GM-CSF Receptor Mutations Top

CSF2RA mutations can present from early infancy to late childhood with insidious symptoms of progressively worsening dyspnea. Though they present similar to auto-immune PAP, they are negative for anti-GM-CSF antibodies, but an increased concentration of alveolar and serum GM- CSF is found. In a case series described by Suzuki et al,[4] two out of 8 patients with these mutations were asymptomatic. Mutations of CSF2RB present from neonatal age to adulthood, with varying degrees of respiratory distress.[29],[30] Symptoms may eventually progress to respiratory failure in untreated patients.

  Lysinuric Protein Intolerance Top

Lysinuric protein intolerance is an autosomal- recessive disease caused by mutations of the SLC7A7 gene, manifesting as failure to thrive and chronic renal and pancreatic insufficiency.[73],[74] Pulmonary symptoms range from mild interstitial lung disease, to respiratory failure.[74] These patients have reduced function of alveolar macrophages, leading to inadequate surfactant clearance and features of PAP.[75]

2) Secondary PAP

Secondary PAP has been reported less frequently in children than in adults. Symptoms are typically insidious and progressive in nature. They comprise up to 10% of pulmonary manifestations during the course of primary disease (malignancies, immune deficiencies, organ transplant, infections, rheumatological conditions, toxic inhalation).[13],[14],[17],[18],[20],[76],[77],[78]

  GATA2 Deficiency Top

Consequently, GATA2 deficiency presents with a very broad phenotype. These presentations include those that are hematological (familial myelodysplastic syndromes, acute myelocytic leukemias, MonoMAC syndrome, Emberger syndrome), pulmonary (PAP, pulmonary arterial hypertension), and infectious (mycobacterial, fungal, viral).[57],[58],[79],[80],[81]

3) Autoimmune PAP

Autoimmune PAP can occur anywhere from neonatal to older age groups.[8],[9] Though it is the most common form of PAP, only less than 2% of patients have other associated autoimmune disease.[10] Dyspnea is the most common presentation (40-70%), followed by cough. Inoue et al showed that about one-third of patients were asymptomatic. Crackles on examination are the most common physical sign (50%) and cyanosis is present in up to one third of cases.[7],[8],[9],[82],[83]

Imaging Findings

On chest radiography, the appearance of congenital PAP mimics that of respiratory distress syndrome.[84],[85] Though nonspecific, findings in primary and secondary PAP typically include bilateral symmetric reticular or indistinct opacities with a central predominance [Figure 1].[86] Less common appearances range from asymmetric multifocal opacities to diffuse consolidation.[10],[86] Pleural effusions and lymphadenopathy are uncommon.[87] A clinicoradiologic discrepancy has been described, with relatively poor correlation between symptomatology and severity of imaging findings.[10],[88]
Figure 1: Chest radiograph in an 8-year-old patient with primary PAP demonstrates diffuse bilateral reticular opacities with a central predominance.

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HRCT yields superior anatomic detail, and is the test of choice in characterizing and determining extent of disease. While CT is not routinely performed for congenital alveolar proteinosis due to severity of disease, diffuse groundglass opacity with prominent septal thickening and fibrosis may be seen.[85] The distinctive pattern of “crazy-paving,” manifested by smooth thickening of the interlobular septa and intralobular lines on a background of groundglass opacity interspersed with geographic or lobular areas of sparing, has been well described in adult patients with both primary and secondary PAP [Figure 2].[89],[90] While the appearance in children may be more variable, the majority of patients exhibit a crazy-paving pattern [Figure 3].[15],[88] Children may also demonstrate hyperinflation, consolidation, thickening of fissures, and rarely subpleural or interlobular cystic changes [Figure 4].[84],[88],[91] Whereas septal thickening and groundglass opacity tends to be widespread throughout the lung zones, consolidations may show a basilar predominance.[88] Primary differential considerations for the crazy- paving pattern include pulmonary hemorrhage, exogenous lipoid pneumonia, diffuse alveolar damage, and pulmonary edema.[86],[92] Following therapeutic bronchoalveolar lavage, CT may show decrease in the extent of groundglass opacity and interlobular septal thickening, even in the absence of appreciable improvement on chest radiography.[93]
Figure 2: Chest CT in a patient with primary PAP demonstrates a typical crazy-paving pattern, with multifocal areas of groundglass opacity (asterisk), intralobular lines (solid arrows), and interlobular septal thickening (dotted arrow), as well as geographic areas of relative sparing.

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Figure 3: Chest CT in an 8-year-old patient with biopsy-proven PAP shows interspersed areas of geographic groundglass opacity and sparing, widespread interlobular septal thickening (solid arrows), as well as thickening of the fissures (arrowheads).

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Figure 4: Chest CT in a 4-year-old patient with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and biopsy-proven secondary PAP demonstrates bilateral lower lobe consolidations (asterisks) in addition to more typical finding of septal thickening (solid arrows) and groundglass opacity (dotted arrow)

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[TAG:2]Bronchoscopy with Bronchoalveolar Lavage[1],[5],[10],[94],[95][/TAG:2]

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid usually appears milky in patients with PAP and it stains positive with periodic acid - schiff (PAS). BAL cytology shows preponderance of macrophages, many of which appear large and foamy and stain positive on PAS staining. Electron microscopy of BAL may reveal lamellar bodies with structural similarity to tubular myelin.

  Biopsy & Histopathology Top

In the initial characterization of this disease by Rosen et al,[1] the majority of the biopsy material showed gross features of yellow-gray subpleural nodules ranging in size of several millimeters to 2.0 cm. Palpation of cut sections caused oozing of milky yellow material. The histological findings consisted of lipoproteinaceous eosinophilic material within the alveolar space with small acicular spaces, otherwise also described as cholesterol clefts. The surrounding epithelium is largely intact though it may also be denuded into the alveolar space. The macrophages within the alveolar space are “bubbly” or vacuolated and may show concentrically laminated surfactant aggregates.[96] The eosinophilic material is periodic acid-Schiff positive and diastase (PAS-D) resistant.[1] The histopathological findings from a left lung biopsy of a 4-year-old patient with hereditary PAP demonstrate the typical accumulation of the eosinophilic material within the alveolar spaces [Figure 5]. Hyperplasia of type II pneumocytes is seen [Figure 6], and on higher power, disruption of the alveolar macrophage structure can be appreciated [Figure 7].
Figure 5: The left lung biopsy shows diffuse involvement of the intra-alveolar airspaces by amorphous, granular, eosinophilic material. The interstitium is expanded by chronic inflammatory cells that form dense aggregates (arrows).

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Figure 6: The alveolar spaces are filled with eosinophilic, foamy macrophages surrounded by an amorphous eosinophilic and granular material. Numerous cholesterol clefts (“acicular spaces”) are seen in the alveolar spaces. Type II pneumocyte hyperplasia with expansion of the interstitium by lymphocytes and plasma cells are seen.

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Figure 7: Higher magnification of the alveolar space with granular eosinophilic debris and degenerated macrophages. Occasional lymphocytic aggregates are seen. The eosinophilic material contains cholesterol clefts and oncocytoid macrophages with vacuolated cytoplasm. Degenerated macrophages show disrupted cytoplasmic membranes with release of the inner granular content into the alveolar space.

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Figure 8: Serial lavage specimens labelled from 1-11 shows clearing of proteinaceous fl uid. Image courtsey Dr Alicia Casey, Children's Hospital Boston.

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  Pulmonary Function Tests Top

Restrictive ventilatory defect with reduction in lung volumes, and reduced diffusion impairment, are the most common pulmonary function abnormalities in patients with PAP.[83] Hypoxemia is common in advanced disease along with increased alveolar- arterial pressure gradient (A-a gradient), which worsens with exercise.[97] These abnormalities correlate with the severity and progression of the disease, and also serve as a prognostic marker during treatment.[8]

  Management Top

Whole Lung Lavage[2],[9],[10],[98],[99],[100],[101]

Whole lung lavage remains the standard of care for all types of PAP with moderate to severe symptoms. This was implemented as early as the 1960’s, but more sophisticated techniques have evolved over a period of time with improved outcomes. This procedure is performed under general anesthesia in an operating room or an intensive care setting, by a multidisciplinary staff involving a pulmonologist and/or intensivist, anesthetist, physiotherapist and respiratory therapist. This procedure becomes more challenging in pediatric patients, as it requires anesthetist expertise of selective intubation of a single lung while lavaging the other, and is also limited by the availability of special endotracheal tubes. The patient is usually intubated with a doublelumen endotracheal tube. Flexible bronchoscopy for baseline evaluation and confirmation of tube position is done. Patient is then placed in lateral decubitus position, with the intubated lung on the top and the lung being lavaged in the bottom position. A circuit is established, wherein pre-warmed saline (500 ml - 1Liter) is instilled in the lung to be lavaged, after which it is closed while the patient receives manual or mechanical intensive chest physiotherapy. The circuit is then opened to drain the fluid via gravity. The process is then repeated until the fluid eventually becomes clear. The contralateral lung can be lavaged 24-48 hours later.

This procedure has shown significant improvement in various studies with symptomatic, radiographic and physiological improvement as well as improved survival. There has been an improvement in lung volumes and arterial oxygen gradients reported with whole lung lavage. Repeat procedure may be needed depending on progression of the disease and symptomatic impairment. Diffusing capacity (DLCO) has been reported as an important marker to assess the need for future lavage in one of the recent studies.[101] Fever, infection, pleural effusion, hypoxemia and pneumothorax are usual complications.

  Recombinant GM-CSF Top

GM-CSF therapy remains a safer and non-invasive alternative to whole lung lavage in patients with GM-CSF receptor mutations, or those with anti-GM- CSF antibodies. There are no identified clinical or biological markers to date that can foresee response to GM-CSF. It can be used via a sub-cutaneous or an inhalation route. Different studies have shown significantly improved response with GM-CSF via different routes and different dosage protocols, ranging from 50 - 90%. The main objective parameter for response was improvement in PaO2 (partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood) and the results were comparable to that with whole lung lavage. Side effects were minor and non-specific, and included edema and erythema at the local site, fever, malaise and transient respiratory symptoms.[7],[102],[103],[104],[105],[106],[107]

  Immunosuppressive Therapy Top

Few case reports and case series have shown plasmapheresis and Rituximab (monoclonal antibody against CD20 B-lymphocytes) to result in some improvement in patients with anti-GM-CSF antibody.[108],[109],[110],[111],[112]

  Anti-Inflammatory Therapy Top

In children with underlying disorders such as SP-C deficiency, corticosteroids and hydroxychloroquine[113] have been used in isolated cases with variable improvement.

  Mechanical Ventilation Top

Neonates and infants with SP-B or ABCA3 mutations require mechanical ventilation, owing to worsening respiratory insufficiency and respiratory failure. These children may not respond adequately to whole lung lavage, and lung transplant remains the only option to improve survival.[114]

  Prognosis Top

Prognosis of PAP depends on the severity of the disease and underlying etiology. The most common cause of mortality is due to infection with opportunistic organisms.[17],[115],[116],[117],[118],[119],[120],[121],[122] The natural course of disease involves spontaneous resolution[123],[124],[125] to interstitial fibrosis and respiratory failure.[126],[127] Generally, it carries an excellent prognosis with whole lung lavage.[128],[129]

  Summary Top

Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) represents a heterogenous group of disorders across all age group with varied severity of presentation. The advent of molecular genetics in recent times has increased our understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease. Keeping high suspicion for the disease and early diagnosis remains key for improved outcomes and better prognosis. Whole lung lavage remains the treatment of choice and carries an excellent prognosis. GM-CSF treatment for those who are deficient remains a promising and safe treatment option. Due to a wide spectrum of presentation, with some of the patients being asymptomatic at diagnosis, the disease would have been widely underreported. More efforts need to be done to work-up this disease in appropriate patients and maintain a registry to report all such cases that can help in future research. Gene therapy targeting GM-CSF receptors remains an important milestone to be achieved for the future.

  Abbreviations Top

  • ABCA3 – ATP-based cassette subfamily A member 3
  • BAL – bronchoalveolar lavage
  • CSF2RA/B – colony stimulating factor 2 receptor alpha/beta subunit
  • DLCO – diffusion capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide
  • GM-CSF – granulocyte macrophage colony- stimulating factor
  • HRCT – high resolution computed tomography
  • ILD – interstitial lung disease
  • PAP – pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
  • RDS – respiratory distress syndrome
  • SFTPB/C – surfactant protein B/C (gene)
  • SP-B/C – surfactant protein B/C (protein)
  • WLL – whole lung lavage

Conflict of Interest: None

Source of Funding: None

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  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8]


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